1984, Sikh revolts in Penjab and Indian attacks
During this year, Penjab was a victim to a separatist revolt that
India repressed firmly especially, if we consider the strategic position
of this province, between India and Pakistan and being next to the
and unstable Pakistani Sind. The risk of other separatists can really
be contagious with other provinces of India, not only the Kashmir.
This revolt had its high point by Indians attack on the famous
and highly symbolic Golden Temple of Amritsar where the last rebels
took shelter. By this attack, India firmly confirms its control of
the provinces that tried to be independent like Assam, the territories
of the North east and of course, Kashmir, because of the risk of separation
of the Indian union. During the same year, the Prime Minister Indira
Gandhi was assassinated by several bullits in the chest by two Sikhs
who were part of the security service. The son of the late, Rajiv
Gandhi, was sworn in as Prime Minister per interim.
Prayers of a Moslem soldier
This same year, India launched an operation in the Meghdoot and attacks
were carried out upstream the glacier of Siachem in higher Karakorum.
Fruit of an interpretation of the agreements of Simla in 1971, this
war with the arguable strategic interests, causes an ecological and
military disaster, the highest conflict of the world still continues
If we exclude the Siachen glacier from the two poles, it's the biggest
glacier of the world and on its hillsides takes place the highest
battle of the world (above 5000 meters). India wanted to gain the
eastern territories of the Karakoram for them to be closer to the
Karakoram Highway, a strategic itinary between China and Pakistan.
Because of this, in 1982 India sent its special troops to be trained
in the Antartic in order to reproduce the same conditions as those
of an attack on the Siachen glacier. Afterwards, in April 1984, India
undertook a military operation, known under the name of Maghdoot operation
(Meghoot) on the Pakistani territory by making use of its Air Force,
they parachuted their men onto the Siachen glacier which was not geographically
linked to India.
As up to this day, an evaluation suggests that between 3000 and
100000 soldiers are stationed there by both sides. Acording to another
evaluation, Pakistan has thre batallions on the glacier, whereas India
has seven batallions on the Siachen glacier. The Pakistanis can supply
most of their troops on the peak by road and then on mules through
the passes, however, India still needs to use helicopters and planes
to transport supplies, food and soldiers.
On an average basis, one Pakistani soldier is killed every four
days whereas one Indian soldier is killed daily. According to certain
reports, more than 1300 Pakistani soldiers were killed in this war
between 1984-1999. As far as India is concerned, this war cost them
50 milliards of Roupies and approximately 2000 lives (until 1997)
Just about most of the deaths are due to extreme atmospheric conditions.
According to other sources, only 50
% of the Indian soldiers come home alive from the front, they suffer
from mental illnesses due to lack of oxygen of this high atmosphere,
amputations and other symptoms which are caused by the extreme climatic
conditions of high altitude.
Discover Siachen glacier from space :
1986, the Brasstacks operation:
A series of operations close to Indian Sind, in order to test new
Soviet weapons, created a fearful reaction from Pakistan regarding
the use of real ammunition on the Pakistani territory and a possible
identical operation compared to that of 1971 in Eastern Pakistan. Pakistan
moves a strong division to neighbours close to Penjab. India then cancels
1990, death of Rajiv Ghandi:
The Jammu-and-Kashmir are placed under direct presidential administration.
Rajiv Gandhi is assassinated on May 21 by members of the LTTE, the release
movement of northern Sri Lanka.
1992, fall of the Soviet Union and diplomatic Indo
Moujahidines on a Soviet armoured
The fall of the Soviet Union drags its strategic support of the Indien
conflict along with it. India turns to the Israeli state for a new agreement
and hopes that common work on terrorism, which makes the 2 countries
suffer, can be planned. There is no doubt that the India Israéli
partnership is a first major step towards a return to the normalization
of diplomatic American relations, which were quite fragile at that time.
At the same time, the destroying of the Babur or Babri Masjid mosque,
supposed by built on the site of a Hindu temple creates riots between
communities, Hindu and Moslem woman in the whole of India.
1996, the Kashmir election:
The exceptionally high rate of partition of 30% mark these elections.
The population states by this vote, its refusal of war and affirms its
will of autonomy. This new separatist action introduces another political
difficulty that India and Pakistan would have liked to avoid because
India always refused to take into account the Kashmir identity whos
Independence was forseen by article 370 of the Indian constitution but
which was never applied.
1998, nuclear proliferation on the move:
Ballistic Pakistani missile
In July 1998, an attempt of reconciliation of the 2 countries is conceived
concerning talks between president Nawaz Sharif and Indian Prime Minister
AB Vajpayee, but thereafter India and Pakistan proceed to a series of
nuclear tests which ruined the rare attempts at reconciliation ever
made. India refuses in 1996 to ratify the nuclear treaty of nonproliferation
and proceeds to a series of 5 underground tests on May 11, 1998. Pakistan
answers by a series of official tests, another nucléar conflict,
and this becomes a new international crisis. The Pakistani nuclear weapon
is considered essential regarding the international question of the
Kashmir. History reveals that this Pakistani strategy is partly successful,
thanks to the fast and efficient intervenience of the Westerners in
the conflict ever since, in particular the United States (for which,
the Pakistani tests represent a failure compared to the American policy
of nuclear nonproliferation). One then might suspects China of having
played an important part in the Pakistan manufacture of the bomb. Iran
(always without officiall nuclear weapons but whose missiles»Shabah-3»are
probably equipped with nuclear warheads) and Korea probably received
help from Pakistan. The Pakistani nuclear weapon is a threat to the
Indien nuclear power which is a threat to the first official Chinese
nuclear equipment both were strong opponents of the Soviet enemy and
the Americans of at a certain time. The conflict of the Kashmir is a
strong nuclear vector of the proliferation in the world.
1999, the Kargil crisis :
May of this year, Kashmirians freedom fighters aided by the special
armed forces of the Pakistani army Infiltrated beyond the control line
and went downstream from the Siachen glacier, during military operations
and this, in front of the Indienne army. This crisis was at first, set
up by Pakistan just after the remote events of Kosovo: Pakistan who
on the contrary to India always desired an international debate of the
Kashmir question then hoped for a solution of an UNO choice as in Kosovo.
UNO could then pressure India to organize a referendum on the attachment
of Kashmir which, as one knows, could be favorable to Pakistan, if ever
it were organized. But this strategy is a strategy of despair when one
knows the weak role that UNO played in the solution of the Balkans conflict.
These operations which were the wish of General Musharaf were condemned
by the international community, India reacted firmly and engaged significant
military means on the ground, 20 000 soldiers were deployed, some ten
planes and bombers flew on a major front line which is 120 kms long,
blocking the Pakistan positions up to the heights. July 10, 1999, the
2 countries decided on a mutual withdrawal of the zones of combat.
But this withdrawal of the troops caused a serious crisis within the
Pakistani army and did not forgive President M. Sharif who yielded to
the pressure of the United States. In October, Pervès Musharraf
reverses the Government without bloodshed and issues the emergency state.
This putch caused great concern in the occident and resulted in a series
of measurements and declarations. The public warning came from the International
Monetary director of the International Monetary Funds (IMF) who declared
that Islamabad would not receive any installments on the loan of 1,6
billion dollar. In London, the Commonwealth announced that it would
forbid the military junta to take part at the summit, Karachi Stock
Exchange plunged by 7,36%, Wall Street by 2,7%. Kofi Annan exhortes
the Pakistani soldiers»to try to return to a civil government
as soon as possible". India again places its forces in a maximum
state of alert but P. Mousharraf publicly informed India, without mentioning
it directly, that they should not try to benefit from the weakness of
the Pakistan situation in order to attack the Pakistani interest.
The nuclear powers recognized since the 1998 tests, did not prevent
the new crisis of 1999 and political instability. The crisis composed
of significant risks between the 2 nuclear countries is however only
a crisis, and not a war. In itself It seems that the nuclear dissuasion
avoided sidesteps and the quick arrangement of the conflict between
the 2 countries, as well as the reactions of the international community
and that in particular of the United States (helped by Chinese neutrality)
all played an important role. However, it is known today that the use
of the nuclear weapon was seriously considered by the Pakistan army
during this conflict.
2000, the recrudescence of terrorist acts worsen
Victim of the conflict
October 1, 2001, a terrorist attack on the assembly of Jammu and Kashmir
leaves 40 dead. The bonds of Afghan
terrorism and Kashmiri are very obvious with the fall of the Taliban
regime in November 2001 quoted by the jihad islamist on the highlands
of the Kashmir. New tensions came up after the attack carried out on
December 13, 2001
against the Indian Parliament, Delhi accused islamists groups supported
by the Pakistan. The attack leaves 9 victims however, uncreadibly, not
one Indian minister was killed or wounded.
On the other hand, acts of cruelties of the Indian army against the
Moslems Kashmiri are current (disappearences, tortures) and are stated
to be like permanent aggression of the Moslem people by Pakistan».
This mixture of terrorism and guerrilla worsen the Pakistani Indo relations.
Fighting begins again along the control line and the 2 countries station
their troops again at the border who has never really existed. In 2002,
India and Pakistan are again close to war with nearly a million soldiers
stationed at the two parts of the border.
September nine eleven:
After the attacks launched by Al Qaïda and the reaction of the
United States who is ready to strike Afghanistan, India naturally offered
its military bases to the American bombers and planes but this attitude
was not welcomed by Pakistan who accuses India in September 19, to wish
to recover the American alliance for its own benefit. Pervèz
Mousharraf announces his total support to the United States. This outstanding
speech is the main turn around of strategic alliances in Central Asia
and at the same time it represents the revival of the Américan-Pakistani
2002, a new bigger conflict:
Pakistani 's Manisfestation
During this year, the terrorist attacks in Jammu on May 14, and on
May 21 in Srinagar as well as the bombed car in Bombay made the situation
worse again, cancelling the timid try of goodwill of the 2 countries
and which ended up by a Handshake between Pakistani President Pervèz
Musharraf and Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee, who were invited
to discuss Kashmir at the meeting of Katmandou in January 2002. Pakistan
proceeds to a series of missile shootings. In May, the Indian Prime
Minister tells his troops that the moment of a»decisive combat»had
came.The Pakistani President answers that»if the war is imposed
on the Moslems, the Moslems will not show cowardice». June 6,
the confusion continues when the British newspaper, the Daily Telegraph,
entitled»India projects a nuclear war from now on until weeks
to come, and radio-controlled nuclear bombs were charged on mirage 2001
and Mig 27 planes», and the projects of invading the Pakistani
territory was even published in the newspapers.
nuclear conflict risk was taken very serious by the Westerners, the
embassies panic and the embassy of Great Brittain was evacueated in
Delhi. The United States return concerned and pressure Pakistan, thereafter
Pervèz Musharraf informs an American emissary on June 6 that
its country will definitively prevent the infiltration
of armed groups coming from Azad Kashmir, the pakistanis part, India
was content with this announcement, the dangerous strategy of Indians
higher bet was paying off. However President Pervèz Mousharrafs
speech has only few results on the terrorists activity of the Kashmir.
During this time, new elections (the first time since 1977) are organized,
India wanting to prove its goodwill to the word and the Kashmirians
by installing ballot boxes, but these elections were the most fatal
of the Kashmir history, 527 people are killed, terrorists organized
terror to dissuade the population to go voting .The elections come up
with a coalition of the Peoples Democratic Party (PDP) and the
Congress Party, respecting and making use of human rights, and agreed
to a new compromising policy with a minimum common program, the wish
and need to reconcile the communities of the province, the release of
political prisoners and respect of human rights.
December 2003, attacks against président
Atal Behari Vajpayee
Mr Perves Mousharraf miracuously escape two attacks of a bombed trapped
car, one on December 14 th, the other the 25th, between Rawalpindi and
Islamabad. Financed by Al Qaida, through the intermediary of the Islamists
mouvement, these attacks were firmly condemned by India.
Last political events, signs of a possible outcome
of the conflict ?
Today, it is important, for all, to find a solution. India, who took
the initiative to join the dialogue in April 2003, seeks to become a
world power. Strong by economic growth and its democratic state, it
has a place with the UNO Security Councel but must, for that reason,
get out of the Kashmir mess. It seems to agree, more than ever, to make
concessions which they proved by the real modernisation with which the
Indian leaders greeted the revelations made on the escapes of the Pakistani
nuclear program. An additional sign of goodwill was in the beginning
of mid January during the discussions with the representatives of the
Hall Party Hurriyat Conference, a coalition of moderate separatist groups.
From the Pakistani side, the declaration of President Mousharraf at
the end of last year, announcing that Pakistan was ready, for the first
time since years, to give up the organization af a referandum concerning
the Kashmir, as well as to accept and include the fate of the province
in total discussion , indicate a real viewpoint change.
It is true that the cachmerian separatis ended up becoming a threat
to President Mousharraf himself of which proof can be found because
of the last attac from which he escaped in December 2003. Furthermore,
the Kashmiri movements which fight for the annexing of the province
to Pakistan became an Islamic reference mark and their increasing influence
on the Pakistani companies worried the President. Extract of french
newspaper l'Humanité (17.02.04)
Finally, there is no doubt that the question of the terrorist support
to Kashmir by Pakistan became the main condition for new Pakistani Indo
negotiations, the major settlement of the conflict.
May 2004, the defeat of BJP at the indian legislative
In a Srinagar street
Sonja Gandhi won the legistrative elections in India, after a poll
marathon which lasted three weeks. Pakistan neighbour and rival of India,
quickly reacted to the announcement of the results. We hope that
an unspecified change of government in India will not affect the process
of peace a member of the Pakistani government declared. The Congress
immediately reassured its neighbours and insisted that they were engaged
in a work to create a lasting peace in the area. Release, May
13, 2004 by Liberation.
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